By Rachel Crow
How you prune azaleas can differ depending on the type of plant that you have.
Azaleas are flowering shrubs that are part of the rhododendron family, producing long-lasting flowers in spring that will clothe the bush in a mass of color – with varieties available in all hues, ranging from white to deep crimson.
They don't mind a bit of shade, so are popular plants for flower bed ideas in darker corners of the garden, or under trees, where they can inject a bit of much-needed color. The best time to plant azaleas is spring or early fall, so they are a good choice of shrub when deciding what to plant in September.
There are, however, two types of azalea, so before you bring out the pruners, you need to be sure of the variety you have planted in your garden.
How to prune azaleas of different types
Before pruning azalea bushes, determine which of the two types you have:
- Evergreen azaleas – also known as Japanese azaleas – tend to be smaller, growing to about 18-30 inches (40-80cm) and include dwarf azaleas. Evergreen azaleas are mostly native to Asia.
- Deciduous azaleas are taller, losing their leaves in the fall, with some first changing color from golden through to flaming red and brown before they drift to the ground. Most native to North America are deciduous species.
Once you have determined whether your plant is deciduous or evergreen, you can then focus on how to prune azaleas.
Deciduous azaleas only need to be lightly pruned to remove diseased or damaged stems.
Evergreen azaleas, so long as they are placed in the correct position and well tended to, only need pruning either to remove dead wood, or reduce their size if they are starting, fo example, to grow over a pathway.
'The first rule of pruning evergreen azaleas is to select the right varieties in the first place and plant them where they will do what you want without a lot of pruning,' is the advice from The American Rhododendron Society.
Pruning azaleas step by step
Follow these steps for pruning azaleas:
- Using sharp pruning spears or hand pruners, cut individual branches.
- Cut back any branches that have outgrown the shape of the plant you are looking to create.
- Cut the branches off to a natural spot so that they will regrow in a nice shape.
- Remove dead, damaged or crossing shoots – damaged branches beyond the point of break and above a leaf, and dead branches at their origin.
'When pruning back, try to leave some leaves on the shoot, as you will get better branching from the buds near the leaves,' advise the experts at rhododendron and azalea specialists Millais Nurseries.
What time of year do you prune azaleas
You should lightly 'prune evergreen azaleas immediately after the blooms have faded in spring', advise the experts ay Wilson Bros Gardens.
You should not prune evergreen azaleas at the end of summer or in fall, 'because you want to avoid cutting off fall-produced flower buds that will be next spring's blooms,' they continue.
Pruning azaleas should therefore stop by mid-summer. Heavy pruning of azaleas should be done in late winter and early spring (see rejuvenation pruning below)
How often should you trim azaleas?
'Regular light pruning of azaleas after flowering can dramatically improve the habit of a misshapen azalea plant over the course of a few seasons,' advise the experts at Millais Nurseries.
It may also be necessary to control azaleas which are taking up too much space next to a drive or a path.
How hard can you cut back azaleas?
How hard you can cut back an azalea will depend on how large and old it is.
If it is a scraggly azalea or has grown out of control, 'sometimes radical action and heavy pruning is required,' says the experts at Millais Nurseries. 'But there are no half measures and it will open up a large hole in the landscape.'
If an azalea is cut back heavily then it will not flower in the following year, but this will be worth it if an old shrub past its best is then transformed back into a young, healthy and well-shaped azalea in future years.
How do you prune overgrown azaleas?
The best way to prune old or overgrown azaleas is to give them a new lease of life with a harsh trim.
- Rejuvenation pruning azaleas should be done in 'late winter or early spring,' explain the experts at Miracle-Gro. 'You'll have a year without flowers when you do this,' they add.
- Cut the branches back to about 12 inches above the ground.
- 'Once the plants have started to regrow, prune the end of any strong growing new shoots back to 6 inches to encourage the plant to branch,' say Miracle-Gro.
You can also 'spread the rejuvenation pruning of azaleas out over several seasons,' advise the experts at Wilson Bros Gardens.
This more gradual approach is done over a three-year period.
- Cut about 1/3 of the largest scraggly azalea branches to within 6 to12 inches of the ground in early spring.
- Repeat for another two years.
- By the end of the three years all of the old wood will be removed and the azalea will have healthy new growth.
Will azaleas grow back if cut down?
Azaleas will grow back if cut down with the method used for rejuvenation pruning, as above. You need to make sure that you do this at the correct time of year, in late winter or early spring, before the growing season, so that the plant will produce new growth.
The plant should have grown to a nice shape and produce lots of beautiful blooms within about three years after this manner of extreme pruning.
This feature was created by H&G sister brand, Period Living magazine
Period Living is the UK's best-selling period homes magazine. A subscription provides you with all you need to know about caring for and improving a traditional house and garden
I am the Content Editor on Homes & Garden's sister magazine, Period Living Magazine. I joined the team nine years ago, after freelancing for years on a range of titles, covering everything from homes and gardens, to history, arts and crafts. I have the joy of covering all of these areas of interest still - handily packaged together in the pages of Period Living Magazine and for the Country Channel of Homes & Gardens.
I love discovering how passionate gardeners have transformed often previously neglected plots into beautiful spaces brimming with blooms for our real garden stories; I feel privileged to meet and interview many artisans and craftspeople creating unique homeware, sharing their stories and the skills of their traditional crafts; and I find uncovering the background stories of historic properties and antiques endlessly fascinating.
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