How to lay a patio – a step-by-step guide to building a patio

Learn how to lay a patio. Follow our step-by-step guide for everything you need to know to build your dream patio

How to build a patio demonstrated in a large stone patio space with round table and white parasol.
(Image credit: Future / Alicia Taylor)

Knowing how to lay a patio needn't mean you have to do it yourself, but it will give you an understanding of the process, which is important when you are considering a new look for your outdoor space. 

And if you're in the process of planning new garden ideas and rethinking your backyard landscaping, a patio could provide the ideal visual centerpiece. This exterior 'room' often adjoins our main home, leading off from the kitchen to create an informal dining and entertaining area.

There are a wealth of clever patio ideas to suit every taste and budget, and having a smaller garden needn't limit the scope of your ambitions for this space.

How to lay a patio in a modern scheme with long white table and chairs and architectural pergola-style features.


(Image credit: Future / Davide Lovatti)

Once you've decided that a patio is the right choice for you, it's time to move on to the key considerations when it comes to how to lay a patio, which can broadly be summed up in three words: Planning, preparation and paving.

We've weaved in answers to each of these stages in our easy-to-follow how to build a patio guide, giving you the confidence to start turning your patio vision into reality.

How to lay a patio

Laying a patio requires both precision and patience, and each of the below steps will need to be completed in turn in order to achieve a professional finish. 

An example of how to lay a patio with steps leading up to a shaded patio area with chairs, small table and deep flower beds.


(Image credit: Katharine Pooley)

You will need:

  • Hardcore (a granular sub-base that is designed to prevent your patio from sinking)
  • Bedding mortar
  • Cement
  • Building sand
  • Paving slabs

1. Create a plan of the patio on paper

Use graph paper to create a to-scale (1cm = 50cm) plan of your patio. When you have dimensions in square feet or square meters, you can order the requisite number of paving slabs for your patio project, factoring in whether you want to include patio cover ideas like a pergola which may require a certain sized space.

2. Lay patio slabs in a 'dry run' first

When designing a patio with more complex paving patterns, it may be helpful to dry lay your slabs out first to check that everything fits together seamlessly.

3. Plot out the patio with pegs

Use wooden setting out pegs, a tape measure and builders string to mark out the area where you intend to build your patio, checking corners with a builders square. If placing the patio next to your home, the surface should be 150mm below the damp proof course, and you'll need to allow for a slight slope on one side to facilitate water drainage.

4. Prepare the patio's foundations

To create a base for your patio you'll need to remove any existing turf and plants and dig down to a depth that's the total of the following:

So if your paving slabs are 25mm deep, as an example, you'd have a depth of 155mm.

Top tip: Paving suppliers should have details of the recommended base size, and this may vary from the above, so it's always worth asking.

5. Lay the patio's base

Use a rake to evenly distribute your hardcore, before using a hired wacker plate to compact it.

6. Lay the patio paving slabs

Place a section of wet bedding mortar roughly the size of your slab in the top left hand corner of your plot, place the slab directly onto it and check with a spirit level.

Tap it into place with a rubber mallet if the level needs to be adjusted. Leave a gap of 1cm – you can buy leave-in-place paving spacers for added reassurance if needed – between each slab. 

Repeat the above process, this time checking levels against the slab next to it and directly below it (once you reach that stage).

7. Point the patio

A sand and cement mixture is used to point the patio, i.e. filling in the gaps between paving slabs, using a 4:1 ratio (four parts sand to one part cement). You'll need to add in a very small amount of water to the mixture to make it slightly damp. 

Press the mixture into the gaps using a pointing trowel. Brush away any excess once finished and sponge down paving slabs to remove any dirt or debris. Wait a minimum of 24 hours before moving onto the next step.

8. Tie everything together

This is the part where you can get creative and start planning out your patio planting ideas, including where you'll place any pots, patio furniture ideas and garden accessories.

'Consider adding touches of metal as a final flourish. Variegated copper planters are a fabulous addition, or I love to add a metal sculpture,' says designer Katharine Pooley. 'A simple orb or sphere in an urban environment works well, especially when contrasted with soft leafy planting.'  

How to lay a patio shown in a sleek modern patio space with various colors of paving stone and a bronze fire pit.


(Image credit: Garden Club London)

How much does it cost to build a patio?

'The total patio cost, including building, can come in at anywhere between $7.5K/£6K and $32K/£25K, depending on the size and scope of project, with a 60/40 split between labor and materials / waste removal,' says Tony Woods, design director at Garden Club London.

'Much of the work is in the preparation, and correct levels and foundations are absolutely key to the longevity of the surfacing.'

He goes to recommend that if homeowners are keen to make savings on their overall build, it should be on product rather than preparation (good quality paving can range from $38-$90 (£30-£70) per m2).